Oct 22, 2015· With the relatively low cost of natural gas (NG) in North America, combining natural gas injection with PCI has become one method of significantly reducing coke use in blast furnace operation Typically, co-injection of natural gas utilizes one of two methods, a dual lance design (one NG, one PC) or a tuyere port for NG injection
(a) Schematic diagram of blast furnace inside (b) Control of blast furnace processing by center coke charging Hot metal Tuyere Tapping Slag Stabilization of central gas flow (Operational point) Center coke charging Decrease in O/C ratio at center (Effect of center coke charging) Stabilization and strengthening of central gas flow
Using this model, the smelting processes and parameters in two different blast furnaces are investigated with wide variation in the flow rates of natural gas and coke-oven gas and in the distribution of the materials over the furnace radius New scientific and practical findings are reported
Blast Furnace sinter Lump Iron Ore Fine Iron Ore Coke fuel , CDRI HDRI Coke Scrap Hot ‘air’ blast O 2 Coke breeze H 2? Natural Gas H 2? , Innovative Uses of Hydrogen in Steelmaking presentation by Jayson Ripke, Midrex Technologies, Inc, at the [email protected] Scale Workshop, held May 23 24, 2017, in Houston, Texas .
After drying this raw gas and separating tar, light oil and sulphur fractions (which have values themselves), coke oven gas (COG) is obtained This gas has a heating value between 17 – 20 MJ/Nm3 and is generally used for coke oven heating, heating of other furnaces and for power generation, both internally and externally
After a description of the by-product combustible gases: coke oven gas (COG), blast furnace gas (BFG) and basic oxygen furnace gas (BOFG), a focus is given on the constraints of their usage, in .
Aug 04, 2011· The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically convert iron oxides into liquid iron called "hot metal" The blast furnace is a huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and limestone are dumped into the top, and preheated air is blown into the bottom
2322 Blast furnace gas Blast furnace gas is produced during the iron oxide reduction in blast furnace iron making in which iron ore, coke and limestone are heated and melted in a blast furnace and is an indigenous process gas of the steelworks industry (Pugh et al, 2013)
Abstract The interrelated redox processes in the high-temperature lower region of a blast furnace with a hybrid blast are analyzed Particular attention is paid to the gas composition, the thermal effects of the reactions, and the motion of solids, liquids, and gases in the hearth’s tuyere region
• Lower natural gas prices lead to increased injection of natural gas in blast furnaces, • In 2013, all but 1 of 29 of NAFTA blast furnaces are injecting gas while 45 % are co injecting with gas and PCI, while one coal injection system (to serve 2 BF’s) remains idle • Natural gas ,
blast furnace is around 25 to 30m It must be mentioned that blast furnace is a very efficient reactor both in terms of heat and mass exchange between solids and gas Blast furnace operation In the blast furnace burden (consists of iron ore sinter/pellets +coke +limestone/lime) at 298K is charged
Blast Furnace Gas (BFG) is produced in every steel plant, whereas Coke Oven Gas (COG) is available on site as well as it is being formed during the production of cok As both gasses are by-products from the steel production process they are standardly present on every steel plant
Fossil fuels are materials in which energy is stored in chemical form, including hard coal, lignite, petroleum, natural gas, and substances produced by processing these materials, such as hard coal briquettes, hard coal coke, lignite briquettes, petrol and diesel fuel, fuel oil, coke oven gas and blast furnace gas
In this paper, a novel process is proposed which converts coke oven gas (COG) and blast furnace gas (BFG) from steel refineries into methanol Specifically, we propose to use blast furnace gases (BFG) as a carbon source, which is a fuel with a low heating value that contains CO 2 and other gas
natural gas From this point, the pellets are charged into the large rotary kiln where they are heat-hardened at 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit , to blast furnaces and steel mills, where they will be turned into finished steel A trainload of iron ore pellets bound for the blast furnace
(top gas), the waste gas from blast furnaces; mainly the products of the incomplete combustion of carbon Its chemical composition during the smelting of cast iron on coal coke is 12–20 percent carbon dioxide, 20–30 percent carbon monoxide, up to 05 percent methane, 1–4 percent hydrogen, and 55–58 percent nitrogen
A blast furnace is a special type of furnace for smelting iron from oreBlast furnaces are very large They can be up to 60 metres (200 ft) tall and 15 metres (49 ft) in diameterThe blast furnace is the biggest chemical reactorBlast furnaces are also called high ovens A blast furnace is usually built with a steel case and bricks made of magnesium oxide or other refractory material inside .
Blast Furnace Gas Blast furnace gas is a by-product of blast furnaces where iron ore is reduced with coke into metallic (pig) iron The gas has a very low heating value of around 09kWh/Nm 3 , which on its own is typically not high enough for combustion in a gas engine
Similar to PCI, natural gas injection in BF allows a reduction in coke utilization with associated benefits With natural gas use, hydrogen is introduced as a reducing agent to the BF and this offers benefits over carbon monoxide which is the reductant in the case of coke or PCI usage These benefits include elimination of the CO2 formation, reduced heat demand, and improved productivity
He says that plant is using natural gas instead of coke in a "small percentage" of its blast furnac "Coke-making remains an integral part of our steelmaking process The quality of the steel we .
Jul 12, 2019· Blast Furnace and Process Description:- Iron blast furnace is a vertical shaft, which is used to melt the iron ore and to produce hot metal by heat exchange and chemical reactionThe burden charge consisting of iron oxide, flux and coke and it provides through the throat from the top of the furnace
Blast furnace gas (BFG)  is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to metallic ironIt has a very low heating value, about 93 BTU/cubic foot, because it consists of about 60 percent nitrogen, 18-20% carbon dioxide and some oxygen, which are not flammableThe rest is mostly carbon monoxide, which has a fairly low heating value already
Optimizing Blast Furnace Operation to Increase Efficiency and Lower Costs State-of-the-Art Computational Fluid Dynamics Model Optimizes Fuel Rate in Blast Furnac The blast furnace (BF) is the most widely used ironmaking process in the US A major advance in BF ironmaking has been the use of pulverized coal which partially replaces .
May 03, 2010· Blast Furnace Modern furnaces are equipped with an array of supporting facilities to increase efficiency, such as ore storage yards where barges ,
Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke .
), conventional fuels (including natural gas and coke/coke breeze), process gases (including coke oven gas — COG, and blast furnace gas — BFG), process residues used as input material including filtered dust from the sintering plant, the converter and the blast furnace, other fuels and flue gas scrubbing
The study evaluates and compares the relative economic benefits of injecting natural gas, oil, or coal into a blast furnace The use of a supplemental fuel in the blast furnace results in two major operating benefits: (1) coke requirements are decreased, and (2) furnace productivity is increased
was always a major goal for blast furnace operators Supplemental fuels, especially in the form of a combined blast, are typically used to reduce coke consumption in a blast furnace The major types of combined blast and supplemental fuels are as follows: oxygen enrichment, natural gas, oil and pulverized coal injection
Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when the iron ore is reduced with coke to metallic iron It has a very low heating value, about 93 BTU/cubic foot (35 MJ/m 3), because it consists of about 60 percent nitrogen and 18-20% carbon dioxide, which are not flammable
A world class blast furnace operation demands the highest quality of raw materials, operation, and operators Coke is the most important raw material fed into the blast furnace in terms of its effect on blast furnace operation and hot metal quality A high quality coke should be able to support a .